雷対策関連の規格

雷防護に関する国際規格(IEC、ITU-T)と国内規格(JIS)

国内規格

JIS(日本産業規格Japanese Industrial Standards)は、原則的に貿易障壁をなくす目的でIEC (国際電気標準会議 International Electrotechnical Commission)規格を翻訳した一致規格(IDT)として発行されています。但し、我国の状況と合わない場合では下線点線付き文書の追加又は編集(MOD)が許されています。

国際規格(IEC、ITU-T)

IECはITU(国際電気通信連合International Telecommunication Union)、IEEE(米国電気電子学会Institute of electrical and Electronics Engineers)などの国際機関と緊密に連携し活動しています。

IECにおける雷防護関係委員会およびITU-Tにおける勧告

IECには多数(210:2020.07現在)の委員会(TC: Technical Committees、SC:Subcommittees)が活動しています。その中で雷防護に関する委員会および各委員会で作成される規格を紹介します。

また、ITU-Tで発行されている勧告についても紹介します。

TC37: Surge arresters(高圧用避雷器)
SC37A: Low-voltage surge protective devices(低圧用SPD)

低圧用SPD(サージ防護デバイス)の規格作成を担っています。この委員会では、SPDの要求性能及び試験方法、選定及び適用基準の2部構成で各種SPDの規格を審議、作成しています。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
61643-01 LOW-VOLTAGE SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES –Part 01: General Requirements for low-voltage surge protective devices IECで審議中
61643-11 低圧サージ防護デバイス―第11部:低圧配電システムに接続する低圧サージ防護デバイス(SPD)の要求性能及び試験方法 JIS C 5381-11

61643-12

低圧サージ防護デバイス―第12部:低圧配電システムに接続する低圧サージ防護デバイス(SPD)の選定及び適用基準 JIS C 5381-12
61643-21 低圧サージ防護デバイス―第21部:通信及び信号回線に接続するサージ防護デバイス(SPD)の要求性能及び試験方法 JIS C 5381-21
61643-22 低圧サージ防護デバイス―第22部:通信及び信号回線に接続するサージ防護デバイス(SPD)の選定及び適用基準 JIS C 5381-22
61643-31 低圧サージ防護デバイスー第31部:太陽電池設備の直流側に接続するサージ防護デバイスの要求事項及び試験方法

JIS C 5381-31

61643-32 低圧サージ防護デバイスー第32部:太陽電池設備の直流側に接続するサージ防護デバイスの選定及び適用基準 JIS C 5381-32
61643-41 SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR D.C.SPECIFIC APPLICATION – Part – 41: Surge protective devices connected to DC low-voltage power systems –Requirements and test methods. IECで審議中
SC37B: Components for low-voltage surge protection(低圧用雷防護部品)

雷防護部品の規格作成を担っています。この委員会では、雷防護部品の要求性能及び試験方法、選定及び適用基準の2部構成で各種雷防護部品の規格を審議、作成しています。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
61643-311 低圧サージ防護デバイス用部品-第311部:ガス入り放電管(GDT)の要求事項及び試験回路 JIS C 5381-311
61643-312 低圧サージ防護デバイス用部品-第312部:ガス入り放電管(GDT)の選定及び適用基準 JIS C 5381-312
61643-321 低圧サージ防護デバイス用アバランシブレークダウンダイオード(ABD)の試験方法 JIS C 5381-321
61643-322 Components for low-voltage surge protection- Part 322: Selection and application principles for avalanche breakdown diodes (ABD) IECで審議中
61643-331 低圧サージ防護デバイス用金属酸化物バリスタ(MOV)の試験方法 JIS C 5381-331
61643-332 Components for low-voltage surge protection- Part 332: Selection and application principles for metal oxide varistors (MOV) IECで審議中
61643-341 低圧サージ防護デバイス用サージ防護サイリスタ(TSS)の試験方法 JIS C 5381-341
61643-342 Components for low-voltage surge protection- Part 342: Selection and application principles for thyristor surge suppressors (TSS) IECで審議中
61643-351 低圧サージ防護用部品ー第351部:通信・信号回線に接続するサージアイソレーショントランス(SIT)の要求性能及び試験方法 JIS C 5381-351
61643-352 低圧サージ防護用部品ー第352部:通信・信号回線に接続するサージアイソレーショントランス(SIT)の選定及び適用基準 JIS C 5381-352
TC64: Electrical installations and protection against electric shock(電気設備及び感電保護)

電気設備及び感電保護 この委員会では、電気設備の設置及び協調に関する要求事項を定めています。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
60364-1 低圧電気設備-第1部:基本的原則,一般特性の評価及び用語の定義 JIS C 60364-1
60364-4-44 低圧電気設備-第4-44部:安全保護-妨害電圧及び電磁妨害に対する保護(SPDの電圧防護レベル、過電圧カテゴリを記載) JIS C 60364-4-44
60364-5-51 低圧電気設備-第5-51部:電気機器の選定及び施工-一般事項 (雷による外的影響の特性を記載) JIS C 60364-5-51
60364-5-53 建築電気設備-第5-53部:電気機器の選定及び施工-断路,開閉及び制御( SPDの選定及び施設を記載) JIS C 60364-5-53
60364-5-54 建築電気設備-第5-54部:電気機器の選定及び施工-接地設備,保護導体及び保護ボンディング導体 JIS C 60364-5-54
60664-1 低圧系統内機器の絶縁協調-第1部:基本原則,要求事項及び試験 JIS C 60664-1
SC77B: High frequency phenomena(電気・電子装置のイミュニティ試験)

電気・電子装置のイミュニティ試験 この委員会では連続する高周波及び過渡現象に関する電磁両立性に関する規格の審議、作成をしています。この委員会で審議、作成している規格のうち、サージに関する規格は以下になります。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
61000-4-5 電磁両立性-第4-5部:試験及び測定技術-サージイミュニティ試験

JIS C 61000-4-5

この規格の試験レベルに対して当社のほとんどのSPDは仕様の範囲内です。当社の製品を用いてこの規格に準拠させるためには、単純には当社SPDの電圧防護レベルが被保護機器の耐電圧以下であることが必要となります。

【補足説明】
この規格は、電気・電子装置の電力系統の開閉や雷の過渡現象によって発生するサージに対するイミュニティ要求事項と試験方法が規定されています。
この規格の準拠には各試験レベルに応じた試験電圧を受けて電気・電子装置が故障しないことが求められます。
この規格で要求している試験レベルは次の表のようになっています。

◆試験レベル

表1-JIS C 61000-4-5の試験レベル

レベル 開回路試験電圧 kV
線路間 線路-接地間
1 - 0.5
2 0.5 1.0
3 1.0 2.0
4 2.0 4.0
X 特殊 特殊
Xは任意のレベル

※要求される試験レベルは電気・電子装置の設置環境によります。

◆試験波形

  • 通信ポートの場合:開回路電圧波形10/700μs、短絡回路電流波形5/320μs、実効出力インピーダンス40Ω
  • その他の場合:開回路電圧波形1.2/50μs、短絡回路電流波形8/20μs 、実効出力インピーダンス2Ω

◆各試験波形における出力電流最大値(線路-接地間で試験レベル4の場合)

  • 開回路電圧波形10/700μs、短絡回路電流波形5/320μsの場合:100A
  • その他の場合:開回路電圧波形1.2/50μs、短絡回路電流波形8/20μs:線路間1kA,線路ー接地間2kAとなります。なお、特殊を設定した場合たとえば、10kVとした場合には、短絡回路電流が5kAとなります。

※上記は発生器の出力端子が短絡した状態での最大電流値です。実際の試験での電流は、接続する負荷の影響を受けるため、上記の電流値よりも小さくなります。

※この規格に対応するために、雷防護部品やSPDを選定する際には、上記の電流波形や電流値を参考に部品の電流耐量や、SPDのInなどを選定します。例えば、電源ポートで試験レベル4を選定した場合は、線路ー接地間に8/20の電流波形2kAの電流耐量を持つ雷防護部品又はInが2kAのSPDを選定します。

当社のSPDのほとんどは上記最大電流値を超える電流耐量を有しています。ただし、規格の準拠には当社SPDの電圧防護レベルが被保護機器の耐電圧以下であることが必要となります。

TC81: Lightning protection(雷保護)

電保護 この委員会では、建築物等、人、設備、サービスなどに関する雷保護全般を扱っています。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
62305-1 雷保護-第1部:一般原則 JIS Z 9290-1
62305-2 Protection against lightning - Part 2: Risk management
62305-3 雷保護-第3部:建築物等への物的損傷及び人命の危険 JIS Z 9290-3
62305-4 雷保護-第4部:建築物等内の電気及び電子システム JIS Z 9290-4
62561-1 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 1: Requirements for connection components
62561-2 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 2: Requirements for conductors and earth electrodes
62561-3 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 3: Requirements for isolating spark gaps (ISG)

62561-4

Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 4: Requirements for conductor fasteners
62561-5 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 5: Requirements for earth electrode inspection housings and earth electrode seals
62561-6 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 6: Requirements for lightning strike counters (LSC)
62561-7 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 7: Requirements for earthing enchancing compounds
62561-8 Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 8: Requirements for components for isolated LPS
62713 Safety procedures for reduction of risk outside a structure
62793 Protection against lightning - Thunderstorm warning systems
62858 Lightning density based on lightning location systems (LLS) - General principles
TC88: Wind energy generation systems(Wind turbines - Part 24: Lightning protection 風車-第24部:雷保護 )

この委員会では、風力発電に関する規格の審議、作成を行っています。

IEC規格番号 規格名称(日本語はJIS名称、英文はIECで審議中又はJIS作成中) JIS
61400-24 風車-第24部:雷保護 JIS C 1400-24
ITU-T:International Telecommunication Union(国際電気通信連合)

ITU-Tは国際的に電気通信を標準化する目的で勧告を作成する国連機関です。雷関係で以下のような勧告を発行しています。

ITU-T Recommendations Kシリーズ 

Title of standards
K.6-198811 Precautions at crossings
K.7-198811 Protection against acoustic shock
K.8-198811 Separation in the soil between telecommunication cables and earthing system of power facilities
K.9-198811 Protection of telecommunication staff and plant against a large earth potential due to a neighbouring electric traction line
K.10-199610 Low frequency interference due to unbalance about earth of telecommunication equipment
K.11-200901 Principles of protection against overvoltages and overcurrents
K.12-201005 Characteristics of gas discharge tubes for the protection of telecommunications installations
K.13-198811 Induced voltages in cables with plastic-insulated conductors

K.14-198811

Provision of a metallic screen in plastic-sheathed cables
K.18-198811 Calculation of voltage induced into telecommunication lines from radio station broadcasts and methods of reducing interference
K.19-198811 Joint use of trenches and tunnels for telecommunication and power cables
K.20-201504 Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in a telecommunication centre to overvoltages and overcurrents
K.21-201606 Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in customer premises to overvoltages and overcurrents
K.23-198811 Types of induced noise and description of noise voltage parameters for ISDN basic user networks 
K.24-198811 Method for measuring radio-frequency induced noise on telecommunications pairs
K.26-200804 Protection of telecommunication lines against harmful effects from electric power and electrified railway lines
K.27-201503 Bonding configurations and earthing inside a telecommunication building
K.28-201205 Parameters of thyristor-based surge protective devices for the protection of telecommunication installations
K.29-199201 Coordinated protection schemes for telecommunication cables below ground
K.34-200307 Classification of electromagnetic environmental conditions for telecommunication equipment – Basic EMC Recommendation
K.35-199605 Bonding configurations and earthing at remote electronic sites
K.36-199605 Selection of protective devices
K.37-199902 Low and high frequency EMC mitigation techniques for telecommunication installations and systems – Basic EMC Recommendation
K.38-199610 Radiated emission test procedure for physically large systems
K.39-199610 Risk assessment of damages to telecommunication sites due to lightning discharges
K.40-199610 Protection against lightnig electromagnetic impules in telecommunications centres
K.42-199805 Preparation of emission and immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment – General principles
K.43-200907 Immunity requirements for telecommunication network equipment
K.44-201606 Resistibility tests for telecommunication equipment exposed to overvoltages and overcurrents – Basic Recommendation
K.45-201606 Resistibility of telecommunication equipment installed in the access  and trunk networks to overvoltages and overcurrents
K.46-201205 Protection of telecommunication lines using metallic symmetric conductors against lightning-induced surges
K.47-201205 Protection of telecommunication lines against direct lightning flashes
K.48-200609 EMC requirements for telecommunication equipment – Product family Recommendation
K.49-200512 Test requirements and performance criteria for voice terminal telephones subject to disturbance from digital mobile telecommunications systems
K.50-201801 Safe limits for operating voltages and currents of telecommunication systems powered over the network
K.51-201606 Safety criteria for telecommunication equipment
K.52-201801 Guidance on complying with limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields
K.54-200412 Conducted immunity test method and level at fundamental power frequencies
K.55-200208 Overvoltage and overcurrent requirements for insulation  displacement connectors (IDC) terminations
K.56-201001 Protection of radio base stations against lightning discharges
K.57-201606 Protection measures for radio base stations sited on power line towers
K.58-201402 EMC, resistibility and safety requirements and guidance  for determining responsibility under co-located information  and communication technology installations
K.59-201512 Electromagnetic compatibility, resistibility and safety requirements and procedures for connection to unbundled cables
K.60-201512 Emission levels and test methods for wireline telecommunication  networks to minimize electromagnetic disturbance of radio services
K.61-201801 Guidance on measurement and numerical prediction of electromagnetic fields for compliance with human exposure limits for telecommunication installations
K.62-200402 System level radiated emissions compliance using mathematical modelling
K.63-200402 Maintaining the suitability of production telecommunications equipment to its intended electromagnetic environment
K.64-202006 Safe working practices for outside equipment installed in particular environments
K.65-201101 Overvoltage and overcurrent requirements for termination  modules with contacts for test ports or surge protective devices
K.66-201106 Protection of customer premises from overvoltages
K.67-201512 Expected surges on telecommunications and signalling networks due to lightning
K.68-200804 Operator responsibilities in the management of electromagnetic interference by power systems on telecommunication systems
K.69-200610 Maintenance of protective measures
K.70-201801 Mitigation techniques to limit human exposure to EMFs in the vicinity of radiocommunication stations
K.71-201106 Protection of customer antenna installations
K.72-201106 Protection of telecommunication lines using metallic conductors against lightning – Risk management
K.73-201911 Shielding and bonding for cables between buildings
K.74-201503 Electromagnetic compatibility, resistibility and safety requirements for home network devices
K.75-201606 Classification of interface for application of standards on resistibility and safety of telecommunication equipment
K.76-200807 EMC requirements for telecommunication network equipment (9 kHz-150 kHz)
K.77-201907 Characteristics of metal oxide varistors for the protection of telecommunication installations
K.78-201606 High altitude electromagnetic pulse immunity guide for telecommunication centres
K.79-201503 Electromagnetic characterization of the radiated environment in the 2.4 GHz ISM band
K.80-200907 EMC requirements for telecommunication network equipment (1 GHz - 6 GHz)
K.81-201606 High-power electromagnetic immunity guide for telecommunication systems
K.82-201005 Characteristics and ratings of solid-state, self-restoring overcurrent protectors for the protection of telecommunications installations
K.83-202006 Monitoring of electromagnetic field levels
K.84-201101 Test methods and guide against information leaks through unintentional electromagnetic emissions
K.85-201111 Requirements for the mitigation of lightning effects on home networks installed in customer premises
K.86-201111 Method for measuring longitudinal conversion loss (9 kHz - 30 MHz)
K.87-201606 Guide for the application of electromagnetic security requirements - Overview
K.88-201111 EMC requirements for next generation network equipment
K.89-201205 Protection of persons inside a structure using telecommunication services provided by metallic conductors against lightning - Risk management
K.90-201807 Evaluation techniques and working procedures for compliance with exposure limits of network operator personnel to power-frequency electromagnetic fields
K.91-202006 Guidance for assessment, evaluation and monitoring of human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields
K.92-201205 Conducted and radiated electromagnetic environment in home networking
K.93-201612 Immunity of home network devices to electromagnetic disturbances
K.94-201205 Mutual disturbance test method for evaluating performance degradation of converged terminal devices
K.95-201606 Surge parameters of isolating transformers used in telecommunication devices and equipment
K.96-201412 Surge protective components: Overview of surge mitigation functions and technologies
K.97-201402 Lightning protection of distributed base stations
K.98-201408 Overvoltage protection guide for telecommunication equipment installed in customer premises
K.99-201408 Surge protective component application guide – Gas discharge tubes
K.100-201907 Measurement of radio frequency electromagnetic fields to determine compliance with human exposure limits when a base station is put into service
K.101-2014-12 Shielding factors for lightning protection
K.102-201408 Parameters of fixed-voltage thyristor overvoltage protector components used for the protection of telecommunication installations
K.103-201503 Surge protective component application guide – Silicon PN junction components
K.104-201503 Method for identifying the transfer potential of the earth potential rise from high or medium voltage networks to the earthing system or neutral of low voltage networks
K.105-201503 Lightning protection of photovoltaic power supply systems feeding radio base stations
K.106-201503 Techniques to mitigate interference between radio devices and cable or equipment connected to wired broadband networks and cable television networks
K.107-201511 Method for determining the impedance to earth of earthing systems
K.108-201511 Joint use of poles by telecommunication and solidly earthed power lines
K.109-201511 Installation of telecommunication equipment on utility poles
K.110-201512 Lightning protection of the dedicated transformer for radio base stations
K.111-20151 Protection of surrounding structures of telecommunication towers against lightning
K.112-201907 Lightning protection, earthing and bonding: Practical procedures for radio base stations
K.113-201511 Generation of radiofrequency electromagnetic field level maps
K.114-201511 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements and measurement methods for digital cellular mobile communication base station equipment
K.115-201511 Mitigation methods against electromagnetic security threats
K.116-201907 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements and test methods for radio telecommunication terminal equipment
K.117-201612 Primary protector parameters for the surge protection of equipment Ethernet ports
K.118-201612 Requirements for lightning protection of fibre to the distribution point equipment
K.119-201612 Conformance assessment of radio base stations regarding lightning protection and earthing
K.120-201612 Lightning protection and earthing of a miniature base station
K.121-201612 Guidance on the environmental management for compliance with radio frequency EMF limits for radiocommunication base stations
K.122-201612 Exposure levels in close proximity of radiocommunication antennas
K.123-201907 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements for electrical equipment in telecommunication facilities
K.124-201612 Overview of particle radiation effects on telecommunication systems
K.125-201707 Dangerous effects and protective measures against electromagnetic disturbances when an Internet data centre is co-sited with a high-voltage substation
K.126-201707 Surge protective component application guide - High frequency signal isolation transformers
K.127-201707 Immunity requirements for telecommunication equipment in close proximity use of wireless devices
K.128-201801 Surge protective component application guide - metal oxide varistor (MOV) components
K.129-201801 Characteristics and ratings of silicon PN junction voltage clamping components used for the protection of telecommunication installations
K.130-201801 Neutron irradiation test methods for telecommunication equipment
K.131-201801 Design methodologies for telecommunication systems applying soft error measures
K.132-201801 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements of electromagnetic disturbances from lighting equipment located in telecommunication facilities
K.133-201801 Electromagnetic environment of body-worn equipment in the 2.4 GHz and 13.56 MHz industrial, scientific and medical band
K.134-201811  Protection of small-size telecommunication installations with poor earthing conditions
K.135-201811 Technical parameters for residual current operated protective devices with automatic reclosing feature for telecom applications
K.136-201811 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements for radio telecommunication equipment
K.137-201811 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements and measurement methods for wire-line telecommunication network equipment
K.138-201811 Quality estimation methods and application guidelines for mitigation measures based on particle radiation tests
K.139-201811 Reliability requirements for telecommunication systems affected by particle radiation
K.140-201907 Surge protective component application guide - Fuses
K.141-201907 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements for information perception equipment
K.142-201911 Lightning protection and earthing of video surveillance systems
K.143-201911 Guidance on safety relating to the use of surge protective devices and surge protective components in telecommunication terminal equipment
K.144-201911 Surge protective component application guide - Self-restoring thermally activated overcurrent protectors
K.145-201911 Assessment and management of compliance with radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure limits for workers at radiocommunication sites and facilities
K.146-202006 Management of interferences on telecommunication transmissions on copper other than speech
K.147-202006 Ethernet port resistibility testing for overvoltages and overcurrents
K.148-202012 Multiservice surge protective device application guide
K.149-202012  Passive intermodulation test methods of array antenna systems in mobile communication systems
K.150-202012 Information of semiconductor devices required for the design of telecommunication equipment applying soft error mitigation measures

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